Organic Chemistry Flashware
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Acetal and Hemiacetal Formation (acidic conditions)


Addition to Carbonyl: general mechanism (acidic conditions)


Addition to Carbonyl: general mechanism (basic conditions)


Alcohol Dehydration


Aldol Condensation (basic conditions)


Amide Formation (via anhydride)


Amide Hydrolysis (acidic conditions)


Amide Hydrolysis (basic conditions)


Arrow Pushing: Bronsted-Lowry acid H–A


Arrow Pushing: Bronsted-Lowry acid H–A+


Arrow Pushing: carbonyl addition (acidic conditions)


Arrow Pushing: carbonyl addition (basic conditions)


Arrow Pushing: collapse of tetrahedral intermediate (acidic conditions)


Arrow Pushing: collapse of tetrahedral intermediate (basic conditions)


Arrow Pushing: form/break C–X sigma bond


Arrow Pushing: form/break C–X+ sigma bond


Arrow Pushing: nucleophiles/electrophiles


Arrow Pushing: nucleophilic substitution (Nu + R–L)


Arrow Pushing: nucleophilic substitution (Nu + R–L+)


Carbocation Rearrangement: 1,2-alkyl shift


Carbocation Rearrangement: 1,2-hydride shift


Claisen Ester Condensation


Conjugate Addition


Cyanohydrin Reaction


Diels-Alder Reaction: cyclopentadiene + ethene


Diels-Alder Reaction: cyclopentadiene + maleic anhydride


Diels-Alder Reaction: general mechanism


E1 Elimination


E1cb Elimination


E2 Elimination


Electron Configuration


Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Friedel-Crafts acylation


Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Friedel-Crafts alkylation


Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: general mechanism


Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: halogenation


Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: nitration


Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: sulfonation


Enolate Alkylation


Epoxidation (with peracid)


Epoxide Opening (acidic conditions)


Epoxide Opening (basic conditions)


Ester Hydrolysis (acidic conditions)


Ester Hydrolysis (basic conditions)


Esterification (via acid chloride)


Fischer Esterification


Functional Group Explorer


Grignard Reaction of Aldehydes/Ketones


Halogenation of Alkenes


Halohydrin Formation


Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation


Hybridization: sp


Hybridization: sp2


Hybridization: sp3


Hydration of Alkenes


Hydration of Aldehydes/Ketones (acidic conditions)


Hydration of Aldehydes/Ketones (basic conditions)


Hydroboration-Oxidation of Alkenes


Hydrohalogenation of Alkenes


Imine Formation


Intramolecular Hemiacetal Formation (acidic conditions)


Lewis Structure: bromoethane


Lewis Structure: ethanal


Lewis Structure: ethane


Lewis Structure: ethanimine


Lewis Structure: ethanitrile


Lewis Structure: ethanoate anion


Lewis Structure: ethanol


Lewis Structure: ethene


Lewis Structure: ethyne


Lewis Structure: ethenyl carbanion


Lewis Structure: ethyl carbocation


Lewis Structure: ethyl carbanion


Lewis Structure: methanol


Lewis Structure: methanol (protonated)


Lewis Structure: methylamine anion


Lewis Structure: methylammonium cation


Lewis Structure: methoxide anion


Lewis Structure: nitromethane


Lewis Structure: propynyl carbanion


LiAlH4 Reduction of Aldehydes/Ketones


Localized Molecular Orbital Explorer: ethane


Localized Molecular Orbital Explorer: ethene


Localized Molecular Orbital Explorer: ethyne


Michael Reaction


Molecular Orbitals: LCAO theory


Molecular Orbitals: C–C sigma bonds


Molecular Orbitals: C–H sigma bonds


Molecular Orbitals: pi bonds


NaBH4 Reduction of Aldehydes/Ketones


Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution


Oxidation of Alcohols




[2+2] Photoaddition


Proton Transfer: B + H–A


Proton Transfer: B + H–A


Proton Transfer: B + H–A+


Resonance: acylium ion


Resonance: alkoxyalkyl carbocation


Resonance: allyl carbanion


Resonance: allyl carbocation


Resonance: amide


Resonance: benzene


Resonance: carbonyl group


Resonance: carbonyl group (protonated)


Resonance: carboxylate anion


Resonance: enolate anion


Resonance: ethanitrile anion


Resonance: formate anion


Resonance: nitrile (protonated)


Resonance: 1,3-pentadienyl carbocation


Resonance: 1,3-pentadienyl carbanion


Resonance: propynyl carbanion


Resonance: ynolate anion


Resonance: ortho-xylene


[1,3] Sigmatropic Rearrangement: alkyl shift


[1,3] Sigmatropic Rearrangement: hydride shift


[3,3] Sigmatropic Rearrangement: Claisen rearrangement


[3,3] Sigmatropic Rearrangement: Cope rearrangement


Skeletal Structure: codeine


Skeletal Structure: cholesterol


Skeletal Structure: clovene


SN1 Reaction: general mechanism


SN1 Reaction: AcO + R3CCl


SN1 Reaction: tBuOH + HCl


SN2 Reaction: CH3Cl + OH


SN2 Reaction: 2-chlorobutane + OH


SN2 Reaction: general mechanism


SN2 Reaction: Williamson ether synthesis


SN2' Reaction


Substitution at Carbonyl: general mechanism (acidic conditions)


Substitution at Carbonyl: general mechanism (basic conditions)


Tautomerization of Ketones (acidic conditions)


Tautomerization of Ketones (basic conditions)


Transesterification (basic conditions)


Wittig Reaction


Copyright © 2007, Ghislain Deslongchamps